What’s Inside DOES Matter.

Poking my head out of the gopher hole…

You know what really bugs me about some retail establishments and service providers? It’s that attitude of, “We’ve got your money, so screw ya.” Suddenly your problems are no longer their problems and they really couldn’t care less what you think of their product or their service. If you’ve ever dealt with a nightmare disguised as “customer service” then you know exactly what I mean. Had any problems with your cable provider, lately? Hmn? What makes it doubly frustrating is that many of the worst offenders (I’m not naming names, now am I, Directv?) go above and beyond to lure in new customers. Huge advertising campaigns, promises to the moon and back, special promotions, the whole deal. But you know what? It’s gotten to the point where I am super suspicious of those massive campaigns. I’m finally getting a clue that companies that care so much about the people who aren’t buying are the same companies that really don’t care about their current customers. Companies and products with positive word-of-mouth and solid reputations don’t need massive campaigns.

Which brings us to ebooks. Of course. If you’re a regular reader you know I am ambivalent about promotional efforts. I’m also not all that impressed with the time, effort and energy indie writers put into covers. Yeah, yeah, I know books require some promotion (I just have no idea what actually works or why it works when it does–too many factors) and I also know covers are important. To some people. They aren’t to me. Not with ebooks. The reason why is that after I buy an ebook, there is only about a 2% chance I’ll ever see the cover again. Usually the only reason is because I really like the book and want to check the title and author name. While I have purchased a few print books because of their covers–not very many, but a few–that is not the case at all with ebooks. I have zero interest in those thumbnails on Amazon. Except for a very few samples, I couldn’t tell you what the covers look like for any of the hundreds of ebooks currently on my Kindle.

But I will tell you this. There are many ebooks on my Kindle where the writer or publisher had put a hell of a lot of effort into the cover and the promo, and barely any effort at all into my reading experience. I’m not talking about bad stories or even bad editing. I’m talking about the production values. I’m talking about ebooks that offer the reading equivalent of typewritten script on newsprint. Just words with no thought given to the aesthetics of the “page” or the organization or even to reminding me what I’m reading. This lack of concern over my comfort doesn’t make them bad books–it’s make them forgettable. It makes what I’m reading seem cheap and unimportant.

Think about that.

I’ve discussed in previous posts how readers are reading differently on ereaders. They’re reading more closely and they’re more sensitive to errors and goofs. The best I can account for it is that an ereader, such as the Kindle, offers no distractions–not even the faint rustle of a turning page. This can work for or against the writer. Without distractions, readers can read faster, so they buy more books. That’s good. Without something memorable to make your book stand out, it could be forgotten–just another story–when it comes time for the reader to buy something else. That’s bad.

I bring this up (again, and no, not just because I’m the Obsessanator) but because I’m working on an interesting project. I had some problems with Scrivener (by the way, it’s a simple problem to fix, so anybody who is using Scrivener to create ebooks, carry on) and figured I should break down and learn HTML. For those of you comfortable with computers and programming, you’re thinking no big deal. Well, for me, it is a big deal because I do not like machines and the whole idea of them having a “language” kind of creeps me out. In my quest to create beautiful ebooks, however, I buckled down to it. I reformatted some of my short stories, then did a few others, then did an ebook for Julia Barrett, which turned out very nicely. It was actually too easy and I wanted to learn more. (I’m hands on–doesn’t do any good to tell me how to do something. You have to dump a pile of material in my lap and point at a finished product and say, ‘Make it look like that.’) So I sez to my friend, Larry, “I need a challenge. Got anything?”

He sent me a scanned document for a book that contains a screenplay, an interview, and narrative text. Well, I asked for a challenge, and he came through with flying colors. Not only was the scan a big old mess that had to be cleaned up, but I had to figure out how to create the illusion of a screenplay. I wanted to learn some HTML and I learned. A lot. Then to sweeten the pot Larry handed me a bunch more scanned files. These aren’t fiction where the biggest concerns are graphics and pretty touches. These are non-fiction (sort of) filled with case studies and interviews and numbered lists. Challenges. Through it all, the biggest question I’m asking myself is: How to make it look good to the reader and make for a pleasing reading experience? How do I organize the text with visual clues to help the reader keep his/her place and not get lost in the transitions? Print books have certain advantages that ebooks do not. Print can make good use of white space, for example. Large blocks of italics, depending on the font, can look good. With a printed page, the designer controls the right margin and justification (or should). Too much ‘white’ space on a Kindle can look like a mistake. Big blocks of italics are difficult to read. The device controls the right margin and justification, not the designer. What I do have at my disposal are block quotes, hanging first lines, line breaks and a few other tricky tricks. I’ve been spending a lot of time over on w3schools.com to find character codes and figure out how to execute certain commands. Then I try things out, make an ebook, and see how it looks. Sometimes it looks fine, other times it looks like crap, so back to the drawing board. (Notepad++, actually, which is a lot of fun even though I have barely a clue as to what it’s talking about half the time–okay, three-quarters of the time–but fearlessly (or stupidly)I go clicking through anyway.)

It’s a lot of work and I’m still in the relatively slow stage (although, being the queen of Find/Replace does hasten the process quite a bit) but it’s worth it. Yes. It is worth every minute at the computer, every cuss word and crossed eye and “Oh no!” It’s worth it not just because the words matter, but because the readers–our customers–matter. Their comfort, their pleasure, their experience. I want readers to see that I care about them. Not just their dollars, but them. In return, I want them to know that I care very deeply about the books I produce. I want it to show on the screen. I want the ebooks to look important and worthy of respect. Respect=Respect, folks, gotta give it to get it.

I would love to see more ebook producers–indie and traditional–expend at least as much effort in making the actual ebooks look good as they do in producing covers. Honestly, if you’re willing to drop $300 on the perfect cover, but then do a crap layout in Word and publishing the ebook consists of clicking a button and hoping for the best, I have to question where your priorities lie. Don’t be one of those entities that devotes all your time and energy to luring new suckers, er, buyers, then forgets about them as soon as you have their money in your hands.

If you’re interested in seeing what I came up with with the screenplay, interview and narrative, be warned–ADULTS ONLY. The book is about the making of a porn movie. It’s funny and touching and wise, but also pretty dirty. So don’t say I didn’t warn you.

For those who are delving into HTML for their ebooks, a nifty little trick I learned for putting paragraph returns into the Word document before transferring it into Notepad++.

FIND box type ^p
REPLACE box type </p>^p<p>

Voila! The only command you have to put in manually is at the very beginning of the document. (if you already knew this, meaning I am the very last person to figure it out, pfft, it’s still a nifty trick)


32 thoughts on “What’s Inside DOES Matter.

  1. And give us a noticeable bit of indent at the beginnings of paragraphs (except for the first one after the blank line), please, people – because the tiny indent almost isn’t visible in some font sizes, and then the WHOLE text of a section looks like a big block of text! How do we do that, oh guru, Jaye?

    And do NOT do a whole book in italics – I threw that one against the wall. Seriously. Italics should be used carefully in ebooks. The idea is to give the reader a visually relaxing experience – not a fight for meaning. As a reader, I don’t want to have to decode as I go.

    • Funny you should say that, Abe. One of the books I’m working on made heavy use of italics in the print editions. Which looks fine, kind of. It was readable, anyway, because of the font they used. I knew it would totally suck on the ereader. I had to figure out how to delineate between interviewer and interviewees without using italics because, like you say, huge blocks of italics are tough to read on an ereader. Font choices are so limited (dunno why, wish it were otherwise) and none of the defaults look fabulous in italics. I’ve been playing a bit with bold text. Not too much. It’s kind of an unspoken no-no in print, especially in fiction. It looks gimmicky. On the ereaders it doesn’t doesn’t “jump off” the page the way it does in print. So if one doesn’t get carried away, bolding might be a good alternative to italics in some instances.

      As for indented paragraph, that’s tougher than it looks. (indenting isn’t hard–deciding how much is hard) No indents, block text, is horrible for fiction. It doesn’t look so great for non-fiction either, though. Even though it’s common in print for some types of non-fiction, it can cause definite spacing issues on an ereader. Too much of an ident gives that “school essay” look to the page, especially if there is a lot of dialogue. I personally prefer a narrower indent–it “flows” better–but if a book has long paragraphs, a wider indent would probably look better overall.

      I hadn’t been aware, Abe, of how changing the font size on the screen affects the indents. I am going to have to experiment with that. One more thing to obsessanate about. Heh.

  2. I just read a self-published non-fiction book on my ereader. (It was Outlining Your Novel by K.M. Weiland.) I’m usually wary of non-fiction ebooks because the formatting can be tricky. This book had flawless headers and bullet lists and lots of other nifty things that made the book a pleasure to read. It wasn’t until I was nearly done reading it that I realized it. I just knew I was enjoying this book. Great content plus great formatting. Every indie should have it so good!

    • It does make a difference, doesn’t it? I don’t read a lot of non-fiction on my Kindle, mostly because most of my non-fiction books are heavily illustrated reference texts and I can’t even imagine how they’d look on an ereader (though some of them just beg to be offered on those fancy-pantsy iPad editions). I have been inspired by some folks who worked on Project Guttenberg and did some amazing things with ebooks. They tend to be super programmers and such and I’ve no idea how they do some of the things they do, but I know it’s possible.

  3. You are so right about companies and their customer service this is just a small part of a recent letter to one from me
    “You then go on to state in the opening paragraph of the ‘Renewing’ letter that, “We value your business, and our products, services and customer benefits all reflect our commitment to putting our customers’ needs first.”
    The only problem with that statement is that it is bland and so full of buls**t that only the people making it can really believe that there is any truth in it.
    You say, “Thank you for being a British Gas Customer” If it was a choice between being your customer and being a victim of the inquisition, where I would be stretched on the rack, have hot pokers stuck into orifices and sharp sticks poked in my eyes, I think the inquisition would be the less painful option in the long term and more preferable too”

    So both sides of the pond it seems …

    I think I have been fairly luck with the ebooks I have read in that I haven’t come across many of the issues you take umbrage with but the one thing that really annoys me is when reading an historical novel, and I do like these, you find that the authors are using old latin words or descriptions, that isn’t the problem. The problem is that in BOOK form many of them are at the rear of the book and when they publish them in e-book format they leave them there at the back end of the book. The problem then comes if you refer to the glossary at any time and you are reading the book across a couple of platforms, kindle, computer, pad, when you open it up in one of them it asks if you want to sync to the furthest read page AND WHERE THE F*^% do you all end up, the frigging glossary PUT THE FRIGGIN GLOSSARY AT THE FRONT OF AN E-BOOK PPPPpppplllleeeaaasssseeee

    Sorry, rambling again

    Oh and haven’t said it for a while

    LURVS YA xxxx

    • Now there’s an interesting little bug to ponder, Tom. i don’t read across platforms, so that isn’t something that occurred to me. I was, however, pondering footnotes the other day. Not sure what put it in my head, but I was pondering. I haven’t seen an ebook that does footnotes, but I’d love to see a sample (good or bad). As for such things as glossaries, the problem arises with the Sample feature. If a sample brings up a glossary instead of story, then a potential reader might be turned off. It occurs to me that if a glossary is necessary, inserting a link back to the first occurrence in the text might work. That way if the reading device “bumps” you, you can just click the word and get right back to where you were. In theory.

      Have any of you dealt with this issue? Navigation can sometimes be a pain on an ereader–or at least the Kindle–and I’m always looking for better ways to get around.

      Lurv you, too!

  4. Ah, I missed this post! Yes, I agree that care with the content is look and feel is a good idea. I’m reading Prisoner of Heaven right now on my Kindle App and it looks lovely there, with nice chapter breaks, links, and section images. Very nice. Me wants. I’ll be bugging you soon.

    By the way, *awesome* credit to have said you worked on a porn-star’s memoirs! 😀

      • I should start collecting samples of the good, the bad and the ugly. I, too, am inspired by beautiful ebooks (I’ve seen some wonderful examples). Then it’s a matter of digging in and figuring out how they did it.

        Ahem, you’d be *surprised* by some of the things on my resume. Or maybe not…

  5. I certainly agree with you in principle, but I wish that you’d be more specific about the kinds of things your doing that make your ebooks look good. I looked at Julia Barrett’s book, and found it a bit crowded, same for the Block book. Are you using the Kindle Previewer? The new version has everything, including the Fire and the Touch (which sounds like another porn movie…). I presume that you’ve looked also at the Amazon Kindle Publishing Guidelines; it’s pretty specific in spots. Images are a real nightmare; not even SVG is safe. Did you try to do your chapter header images using SVG (via Illustrator or Inkscape) rather than jpgs? You should be able to control the size and placement better with them.

    The problem with ebooks is that you’re fighting a losing battle with formatting: any ebook is going to be a compromise. Not only do different devices and apps support different HTML subsets, but they support them different ways. PLUS they each have their own bugs.

    I’m curious why you didn’t use script mode in Scrivener for the screenplay…or did you use Scrivener for that one?

    BTW, this is the standard indent:

    p { text-indent: 1.5em; }

    …just a simple piece of CSS, which, however, is impossible to do if you’re using Word…

    Anyway, I’m struggling along with a lot of the same issues, but I’ve taken a different tack, using MultiMarkdown and keeping control of all the formatting with CSS. Maybe we can compare notes sometime?

    • Okay, you lost me in some places. I will try to answer some. 🙂

      I looked at some screenplays in ebooks. Most of what I saw looked even worse than what the screenplay looked like in the original print book–which was pretty messy and very inconsistent. I looked at some regular scripts and saw part of the problem was that script formatting has a specific purpose (timing and all that, is what I was told) and that it would end up messy on the ereader. Taking another look at the samples showed me that they WERE properly formatted for a REAL script, but the format didn’t translate. So I came up with an approximation that to the average reader looks (I hope) like a screenplay, even though a screen writer would point out all the reasons why it’s not “proper” script format. Does that make sense?

      As for the pages looking crowded, I don’t know what to do about that, quite frankly. Like you say, what looks good on one screen doesn’t always look terrific on another. Which is frustrating–sometimes I feel ahead of the game if I can just make everything readable. So I’m going with majority rule, so to speak, and formatting it so it looks best on the regular Kindle.

      You’re the second person to express a preference for wider indents. I wonder if my preference for narrower indents is in the minority. To me the wider indents give a “manuscript” look to the text. Will have to experiment with that.

      I’ve started using Notepad++ which is fairly easy to use and forgiving. CSS is actually easier than I thought it would be, but I haven’t yet explored too far beyond the basics.

      Thanks for the head’s up about SVG. I’m going to check into that.

      Sure, email me. jayewmanus at gmail dot com.

  6. 5 spaces is about right for an indent (for a monospaced font). The tabs in Word come set at 0.5″ – which is too much – and if you use a style, and the style is created using inches, you are bound to have problems when you change the font size on the reader.

    I didn’t know you could choose 1.5 ems in Word – next time I open it I’ll see what it will let me use (2004 version on Mac – sigh – can’t afford the time it will take to change to a newer version – just hope it holds up until the book is finished).

    I am always unhappy with printed books which are hard to read because the font size is too small at the same time the page is surrounded by huge amounts of white space – which tells me that for the same amount of paper, the page could have been readable. I’m getting older. I hate reading with my glasses on, if I don’t have to – so I prefer larger type and appropriate amounts of white space BETWEEN the line (1.5 spacing is usually just right for me, at least in Times New Roman in 12-14 point type in Word).

    One of the things I’m looking forward to is being the one who decides these technical questions – MY way. And then all the different ereaders will muck it up. Sigh. But the PODs will be MY way.

    I particularly hate cutesy: don’t have a watermark of frothy bubbles on each page – I can’t read the letters that way. Give me some useful running headers that tell me what chapter I’m in – number AND name, if the author has been so kind. Just be kind to aging eyes – we are a lot of your readers, those of us who are getting on.

    It is exciting to have any control of these features. And people like you to ask when a problem sticks its head up. Thanks.

  7. That’s cool to hear you’re learning HTML/CSS like the rest of us dweebs. I’ll bring the prune juice and star trek DVDs to the party. At the end of your article you mention using Find and Replace in Word. NotePad++ uses an even nerdier thing called “Regular Expressions” to make eBook formatting short and fast (just make sure you click on the “Regular Expression” button in the find and replace window in Notepad++). You may want to experiment with it a bit, because it is much more powerful than anything Word can do.

    Here’s some handy regular expressions if you’re interested (type in without the quotes):

    Wrap Paragraph tags on every line:
    Find “^(.*)$”
    Replace “\1”

    Delete All Tabs:
    Find “\t”
    Replace “”

    Trim Leading whitespace on every line:
    Find “^ +”
    Replace “”

    Trim Trailing whitespace on every line:
    Find ” +$”
    Replace “”

    Turn multiple spaces (two or more) into a single space:
    Find ” +”
    Replace ” ”

    We actually have a program that works in your web browser, which we use at our company to do a lot of these eBook formatting-related tasks. You can check it out here if you’re interested. Let me know if you need us to add any new functionality, and we can try to make that happen.

    Please let me know if you have any questions about HTML/CSS. We enjoy helping out authors and small publishers. It’s the only way to make good eBooks.

    • Er sorry. Word press made a mess out of my comment. Try these:
      The replace string on wrapping paragraph tags on every line should be

      Where [open] is the opening HTML tag (i.e. )

      • Computer nerds drink prune juice? Ay yi yi…

        Very cool. I HAVE to try those commands out. Thank you. Especially the paragraph return command. Word can get wobbly if I put in too many html commands and so the operation does make me a tad nervous, especially on a really big file.

      • Jaye, here is the tutorial on Regular Expressions I just finished (5,000 words) that is dedicated to you. Please take my word for it that this will save you time and your sanity when doing eBook conversions. Perhaps we can exchange knowledge some time: I teach you all this nerd crap, and you teach me how to be a better writer (not an easy task, I assure you).

      • Holy cow, Paul. Because of the discussion going on here, I decided to take the plunge and see if I could cut some steps while working on a converted file (from a scanned print book) and setting up the prelims for formatting. My methods are convoluted, because I’m not terribly familiar with Notepad++ and html, but mostly because my mind is convoluted. The convolutions are inefficient and do slow me down, and I want to improve that. So last night I was playing with the text editor, trying to figure out what I could do and what I couldn’t do, and one of the things that flummoxed me was curly quotes and apostrophes (which, by the way, can be fit inducing even in a word processor–try to convince Word that an open contraction like ’em ( as in “leave ’em alone, doggonit!”) should have a right single quote mark and not a left.) Anyway, I opened up your tutorial and what do I find? Tips on quote marks and apostrophes. I will indeed explore those Regular Expressions (no chore, I LOVE playing with find/replace). I’ll let you know how it works out for me.

        Dear Readers of this blog: I have a lot of opinions and theories and ideas and I do a lot of experiments, some of which produce better results than others. The number one reason I post said thoughts and experiments on this blog are so that you all will chime in with your opinions, theories, ideas and the results of your experiments. I don’t know everything–indeed, I don’t know much at all, which oddly enough doesn’t seem to stop me from diving in and doing stuff anyway–so the more we share and discuss, the greater our communal body of knowledge. I learn a lot from you all. So thank you for anything you have shared and keep the comments coming.

  8. Until Amazon fixes the Kindle 4.1 font problem (where some titles appear in a micro-font that *can* be enlarged but is a pain to do if you read back-and-forth between several titles as I do), *I* won’t be spending any more real money on e-book licenses. Of the seven or eight titles that I have on my basic keyboardless, wifi-only, non-touch Kindle 4, I think all but two were free limited-time promos to encourage me to buy other titles by their authors. Great marketing idea, but unless they fix the font problem on the device, no more cash from me. Of course, they’ll probably fix the problem on the device and introduce more for those doing the formatting work. Sigh. One of the reasons I (foolishly, perhaps) got out of computer science after obtaining a degree decades ago was lack of energy to keep up with the industry. I see it hasn’t changed…or rather, it has and continues to do so. With a vengeance.

    • I hear ya, Chris. I want my devices to do what is promised, and every time something *changes* I get bent out of shape. Usually because the change is not for the better. It seems like every time I figure something out, another problem pops its head up. It really shouldn’t be like this. I kind of understand what’s going on. Sort of. The industry is new, nobody knows what’s best because nobody has yet experienced best, so everybody is striving toward best, and all that striving messes things up. What it feels like to me is I’m trying to build a birdhouse and I have in mind a gorgeous birdhouse that both birds and neighbors will adore seeing and using, but every morning when I walk into the workshop, all my tools have been exchanged for new and improved tools, many of which I have no idea how to use or what they are for, so I have to put all my energy into learning how to use the tools instead of just building my beautiful birdhouse! And when I say to hell with it, tools are tools, and go ahead and build the birdhouse, I’m stopped at the door by some geeky official who tells me that my beautiful birdhouse is not up to spec.

      It may take a while before everybody is on the same page, with the same goals in mind and the tools that are serviceable in the long run. In the meantime…

  9. I agree with so much of your post and the comments here, Jaye. I think one of the fundamental changes authors, especially indie authors, need to embrace is the book as a living document (much like a website). Unlike print, ebooks can and, some would argue, should change. We’re moving from a static medium to a dynamic one, and the technology will continue to evolve and force us to change with it or we’ll risk becoming dinosaurs.

    That being said, there are ways to mitigate the damage of evolutionary technology and create books that are more evergreen. Accepting the reader’s control over the appearance of the book is the first step. The second is knowing what you can and should control. Font size, layout, background, line length, device choice — all are changeable to varying degrees and subject to the whims and preferences of the reader. I just published my first novel and used CSS to set indentation, line leading, and insert custom images for chapter titles and scene breaks. But everything else I’ve left to the reader. My philosophy is that the less I mess with, the happier the reader will be. And a happy reader can immerse herself into my book much more readily than one who doesn’t like my design choices. After all it’s still the book’s guts that matter, eh? As writers we need to remember to focus on creating the best *story* first, then we can make it pretty. After all, you can put lipstick on a pig, but it’s no less a pig.

    • you are absolutely right, Monica. All the prettifiying in the world will not turn a poorly written book into a great book. Nor does expert formatting and graphics touches make up for poor editing. Slap raw liver on Limoges china and it’s still raw liver.

      I’d also like to point out that many of things I do are very subtle and I’m in no way advocating flash and trash for the sake of flash and trash (I’d be horrified if I opened an ebook and got twinkles or fireworks, or (God help us all) it began blaring a tune). The things I urge people to consider are those things geared toward a reader’s comfort. Also, while people might not overtly acknowledge the effect of small touches that improve the look of a page, on some level they do recognize that care was taken in the production and that causes a slight uptick in how seriously and/or favorably they view the overall reading experience. I study those things that cause me to have unfavorable moments while I’m reading, then look for ways so that the readers of my ebooks don’t suffer those same unfavorable flashes. I also believe that the more pleasing an ebook is to the eye, the more easily it is for the reader to forget they are reading and focus solely on the story, Every little annoyance jerks the reader out of the story, even for a microsecond, and that’s not good.

      Here is an example. I’m working on a project right now that has multiple narrators, but no dialogue tags. The original publisher answered the question of who is talking by using italics and many line breaks. Italics in small doses is a great effect in ebooks, but big blocks of it are tiresome to read and quite frankly the default font on the Kindle is not a great italics font. It’s squishy. I’m experimenting with different indents, bolding, line breaks, etc not to dazzle the readers, but to help them keep track of who is talking. I am looking for the least intrusive solution. If I get it right, the readers won’t even notice, but they won’t have to scout around in order to figure out who the narrator is, either.

      • Talk about a challenge! You’ve got your work cut out for you with that one, Jaye. I admire your determination to promote the importance of a beautiful book and wholeheartedly agree that aesthetics play a major part in the reader’s enjoyment of a story. And thank you for posting all the terrific ebook formatting resources. Between your posts and Guido Henkel’s fantastic primer, I was able to put together a clean, elegant layout for my first novel, Girl Under Glass. It took some time, but I think the effort was well worth it.

  10. Congrats, Monica. You know what would be cool? If people would send me screen shots of their ebook pages and discuss the design choices they made and techniques they used, or how they solved an issue that bugged them in other ebooks they’d read. I could lift Joel Friedlander’s idea about the ebook cover awards, only do it for the insides of the books.

  11. That *is* a cool idea. Putting emphasis on what’s inside. I’ll play that game, Jaye, and will send you something tonight. (And maybe people can give me suggestions on how to style one of the elements — a glossary — that I’ve decided I hate and want to change in the near future.)

  12. Hi Jaye,
    It’s been a hectic few days, but I’ve readied a post discussing the formatting and design ideas I employed in creating my ebook. It’s definitely too long to post as a reply here. Thoughts on posting?

    • If there exists a CSS or HTML primer, I’d sure love to know where to find it. I’m just getting started and trying to wrap my mind around conversion from Word is giving me fits. And yes, I read Gino’s book, and no, I didn’t understand it. Hellllp!?

  13. Pingback: Pioneers in Ebook Design: Monica Pierce | J W Manus

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