MS Word, A Primer for Indie Writers: Part II: Scene Breaks, Page Breaks and Sections

From a production point of view, white space in a Word doc can be a problem. It can confuse you or your hired formatter. It can cause goofs in your ebooks, not to mention making extra work for yourself.

I have some simple solutions for you.


Did you mean to hit Enter twice, or is that a scene break? How much time do you spend centering or using the space bar to align asterisks? How often do you forget to add the asterisks, or sometimes use one and other times five? How hard do you make it on yourself (or others) to find scene breaks when your book is in production?

Make it easy. I use a double pound sign (hashtags, for you young’uns).

Word_Styles_4Type them in and drive on. The double pound signs are unique (be very rare to find them within the text) and thus, searchable. When it comes time to produce the ebook or layout a print on demand edition, all I have to do is search for the double pound signs, do a Replace All and scene breaks are taken care of. (By the way, I turned on the Show feature in the sample so you can see the hard returns.)

If using Word to format your ebook or pod book, you can replace the ## with your scene break indicator of choice and style them all in one operation. Here is how:

Create a new style and call it Break or Scene Break. Here is a simple set up.

Word_Styles_5Open the Find/Replace box and do this:

Word_Styles_6Do a Replace All.

Word_Styles_7If you are sending your book to someone else for formatting, tell the formatter that you used ## for your scene breaks and let them know how you’d like them handled.

NOTE: The ## is arbitrary, which I use because it’s easy and unique. You can use any tag that makes sense to you, even typing in SCENE BREAK. As long as it is an easily searchable string, you’re golden.


I don’t use page breaks when I’m composing in Word. It’s unnecessary and just makes extra space I have to scroll through. I use a tag:


That’s two equal signs. I use it because it forms a unique search string. So the text ends up looking something like this:

Copyright Information
Table of Contents
Chapter One
Chapter Two
And so on
Chapter One

My little tag comes in handy while I’m formatting, too, since it allows me to use it as a search term to plug in page breaks and styles. If you want to print your document or you’re formatting an ebook or pod edition, there are two easy ways to insert page breaks.

Number 1: Find and Replace

Word_Styles_8If you want to retain the tag, use ^m== in the Replace field.(You can delete the tags later) Do a Replace All and you have page breaks.

NOTE: ^m is Word’s code for Manual Page Break. You can find other codes in the Special menu you see in the Find/Replace box. Those codes can be used in either the Find or the Replace fields.

Number 2 is to use your Heading 1 style. Modify Heading 1 the way I showed you in Part I. In the modify paragraph box, Line and Page Breaks, check the Page Break Before box. Now Word will insert a page break before every instance of the Heading 1 style.

Word_Styles_9To insert a manual page break in Word. You can use the hot key: CTRL+Enter. Or go to the Insert tool bar. Click on the icon for Page Break.


Sections are a nice feature in Word. They allow you to treat different parts of a large document with different styles, page numbering and first page treatments (no headers or footers on the first page, for instance). For composition, most print documents, or ebooks, you don’t need sections. If you are laying out a print on demand book, sections will save you many headaches and much frustration. The Section Breaks command (with its options for Odd and Even breaks and Next page or Continuous) is found in the Page Layout tool bar.


As noted before, white space can be a problem in Word. Sometimes you want a blank line–to set off a poem or letter, for instance–but it’s not a scene break. What I do is tag the blank line with a single pound sign/hashtag. It looks like this:

Here is my story moving along.
The only problem with
Kittens is that
Kittens grow up to be cats!
And the story continues on (with apologies to Mr. Nash)…

My little tag (which is entirely arbitrary, by the way, you can use anything you like, even type in BLANK LINE if it suits you) is a search term and I also use it to indicate that a section requires special formatting. If you use my single pound sign, remember it is NOT necessarily a unique search string. I make it unique with this string in the Find field ^p#^p. That tells Word to only consider a pound sign if there is a paragraph return before and after it.

There you go, learn a few Word features and use my tips, and white space will never trip you up again.

Part I: Styles
Next Post: Part III: Punctuation and Special Characters

Boast Post: PROTECTORS 2: Heroes –The Biggest Ebook I’ve Done To Date

protectors6It’s been a while since I’ve done a boast post. But this book is extra special. When Tom Pluck asked me if I’d help with PROTECTORS 2: Heroes, the second collection of stories to benefit PROTECT, of course I said yes. The organization PROTECT is devoted to helping kids. As a human being, I’m all for protecting kids from abusers and predators. On a more personal level, it’s the kind of organization that helps the children I’ve fostered and adopted in my efforts to disrupt the cycles of abuse.

PROTECTORS 2: Heroes is a hundred percent volunteer effort. 55 authors and artists contributed stories and illustrations. Many of those authors are my literary idols: Joyce Carol Oates, Andrew Vachss, David Morrell, Charles de Lint, Joe R. Lansdale, and Harlan Ellison, just to name a few. (I confess to a few fangirl squee moments, folks, so sue me…) Tom Pluck, head editor and story contributor, coordinated the effort. Suzanne Dell’Orto designed the cover and the print edition. I line-edited, formatted the ebook, and proofread. It was a massive undertaking. The book is almost 250,000 words and involved months of hard work. Every penny from the sales are going to PROTECT.

I could end this post by urging you to buy the book. (You really should. It’s fantastic and for a worthy cause.) But as with all challenging projects, I learned a few things. With so many indie writers doing box sets and collaborating on anthologies, some of you might benefit from what I’ve learned.

WORK FLOW. Big projects can easily spiral out of control. The best way to prevent that is to come up with a plan and stick to it. Because we were doing digital and print, it was easiest and most efficient to do the ebook first, then the print. Ebooks are easy to modify and update; print can be trickier. So by doing the ebook first we could get the text in tip-top shape, edited and proofread and in order. Then when I sent the final text (lifted from the ebook) to the print formatter, any minor issues found during the final proofread were easily fixed in the ebook. Our work flow looked like this:
Tom: Copy edit individual stories; create the table of contents
Jaye: Compile the individual files into one Word doc and line edit
Tom: Approve line edit, adjust the ToC, make final decision about front and back matter
Jaye: Format ebook. Send proof copy to Tom so he can make any further modifications to the layout. Meanwhile, proofread the ebook.
Tom: Approve ebook. Upload Pre-order to Amazon.
Jaye: Recover text from the ebook files, compile into a Word doc, and send that to the print designer.
Tom: Go over print proofs. Send Jaye final corrections.
Jaye: Produce final ebook.

This work flow ensured that we were not tripping over each other and, more importantly, we were all on the same page and working off the same text.

TREAT THE PROJECT AS A WHOLE: This might seem self-evident, but judging by some of the box sets and anthologies I’ve purchased, it’s a point that seems to escape many. As a reader it annoys me no end when a collection is a mish-mosh of styles–they can’t even match the paragraph indents. Tom dealt with the individual contributors, so he had to work with individual files. Once he gave me the green light, I compiled all those files into one document and from then on treated it as a whole. While line editing I standardized the punctuation and spelling. The formatting was done with the same CSS stylesheets.


MANAGE THE FILE SIZE: We knew going in that this was going to be a big ebook. Not only word count, but there were illustrations, too. Part of my job was to keep the finished ebook at a manageable size. I cannot emphasize this enough. Screen lag is always a problem in big ebooks. That must be minimized. Other problems are more serious. One is Amazon’s delivery fee, which is charged back against the publisher. $.15 per MB doesn’t sound like much, but it can add up and eat up the commissions. I’ve bought (and returned) box sets that failed to load. I had one that crashed my Kindle. (I had to reboot it and that did NOT make me happy in the least.)  I manage file size by formatting in html which is very streamlined and allows me to break up the book into bite-sized chunks. I resized the images to make them as small as possible. I strongly advise anyone deciding to do a large anthology or box set to NOT format it in Word (or any word processor), Scrivener or InDesign. Those programs add sometimes fatal bloat.


NAVIGATION: I’m always obsessing about how to make navigating ebooks easier. In this case I did a two-tier table of contents. Click the story title and the reader is taken to the story. Click the author and they are sent to the author’s bio. In the bio section, clicking on the author name takes them to the story. I did it that way because when I buy anthologies, it’s usually because of the authors. I want to know who wrote what and don’t want to page through the ebook in order to find what I want. (And yes, I have bought ebooks that required me to do that because the ToC was useless or non-existent.)


[Box set tables of contents are trickier and I should do a post discussing the problems and solutions.]

FRONT AND BACK MATTER: Big books often have big tables of contents. This is good, since readers are interested in who the authors are, and I consider it a strong sell point. The downside is, it can eat up space in the sample and Amazon’s Look Inside feature. For that reason Tom and I decided to move all the legal notices and copyright information to the back of the book. I put a simple notice on the title page and added a link to the copyright information.

protectors7protectors3Overall, doing a big ebook has its challenges, but with a good plan, some thought and organization, it doesn’t have to mean you’re ripping your hair out or disappointing readers.

Ebooks Available on Amazon, B&N, Kobo, and iTunes
In Paperback
Buy Direct–All Proceeds Go to PROTECT

More Power to the Do-It-Yourselfers

quinnremoteSo I got an email last week from a friend. She asked about justification and hyphenation in ebooks, and my opinion about what should be the standard. Then in a PS, she added:

PS I now have a system for making Scrivener create an ebook for me that is rather fancy, but doesn’t require any hand work. There’s a post about it on my blog, if you care to look. A tiny bit of hand manipulation of the final epub + Kindlegen even gives me indented right margins for my epigraphs. I have learned so much from you and your posts – but I do have a different system which works for me with NO hand cleaning of the source code, and just a few tweaks to the templates. So I can say my Scrivener ebooks look good on the epub and mobi readers I’ve tried, and I’ll test them on everything I have access to before even uploading. You did say to tell you if people had a system that worked for them.”

It probably doesn’t make good business sense for me to encourage Do-It-Yourself ebook production. Except, I think DIY is wonderful and I not only encourage it, I highly approve of anyone who wants to give it a shot. In fact, I am of the opinion that anyone who wants to make a career out of self-publishing to at least try formatting an ebook. If you’re an independent writer, you’re ALSO a publisher. A publisher needs to know how things work. They need to know what the people they hire are doing and if they are doing a good job and earning their keep.

There are many, many resources available to the DIYer. Both Amazon and Smashwords have tons of information about how to make an ebook. It is possible to make a quality ebook using readily available tools such as MS Word or Scrivener. Here is a recommendation I made to Alicia:

I haven’t used Scrivener since I had a computer die on me, [two plus years ago] and I haven’t reloaded it. I imagine it’s improved quite a bit. Even so, were I using it, I’d skip using their [built-in] KindleGen, run an epub then convert that using the Kindle Previewer. I’d use the resulting MOBI file for proofing and adjusting, then run a fresh epub and load that to Amazon. That will greatly lessen chances of conversion goofs.

I’ve said it many times in many blog posts that the keys to a quality ebook are clean text going in and then careful testing/proofreading of the ebook before it is uploaded to a retailer. How exactly you go from the clean text stage to the proofread stage is up to you. I prefer html and css to build an ebook from the ground up because it’s efficient and I have a lot of control and I can do some very sophisticated styling without breaking the resulting ebook.

If you are comfortable using a word processor or Scrivener or even InDesign, here are the tips I gave Alicia:

[This is a problem] Using multiple, but not embedded fonts. I encourage people to stick with Times New Roman, not because it’s easy to read or because it will show up in ebooks, but because its character sets are stable and every conversion program knows how to “read” it. It’s foolproof as far as conversion is concerned. When people use multiple fonts that are not properly embedded, what will happen is that sometimes during the conversion the program decides to “help” out. I don’t know if you’ve ever read an ebook where all the sudden a word is super-sized or teeny-tiny or characters are replaced by black diamonds or boxes with question marks. That is a result of inappropriate fonts.

Justifying the text. Across the board, this will break a Kindle book.
[Justified text is the default in most Kindle devices, so even if your Word or Scrivener file is ragged right, the ebook will justify the text. If you justify the text, the program will code based on margins and print commands. They can lock. So what happens when it’s converted to an ebook is that the Kindle will not/can not override those locking codes, and users will not be able to adjust margins or line spacing. This is a bad thing.]

Micro-managing line spacing. This can cause big problems in Kindle books. Broken paragraphs, squished text, weird blank “pages” and so on. Set your spacing at “single” and leave it alone. Problem solved.

Hyphenating text. For the most part, Kindles ignore discretionary hyphens. Sometimes they don’t. So you end up with words in the middle of a sentence with a discretionary hyphen character (looks like a hyphen with a hook). It doesn’t break the ebook, but it does look sloppy and unprofessional. In html I [sometimes] use a soft hyphen character. Several of my clients are medical professionals and they use some extra long terms, so I manually insert soft hyphens. I don’t know if there is an equivalent in Scrivener.

Two more tips for you:

  • Remember that what you SEE in your word processor or Scrivener is not necessarily what you will get in your ebook. So don’t get all worked up about spacing and widows/orphans. Let your text flow, which is what it is supposed to do in the ebook.
  • Use styles. Use one style for the main body text (not tabs or hard returns or extra spaces) and another for headers and even a style for centering text. If you don’t know how to use styles, take 30 minutes and figure it out. It will save you time and headaches, and result in a much better quality ebook.

Finally, a word about Amazon’s Look Inside feature. This is a chronic headache for me because most people don’t realize they aren’t seeing the actual ebook. What Amazon is showing is a sample that is specially converted for the Look Inside. Sometimes they justify the text as the default, sometimes they default to ragged right. Sometimes they ignore margins. In other words, if you want to see what the ebook actually looks like, you have to download a sample. Why does Amazon do this? I don’t know. It’s a pain in the ass and I get tired of explaining to clients how it works, but that’s how it is. So my advice to you is if you want to see how your ebook looks “live” do NOT depend on the Look Inside. If you don’t have a Kindle, then download the Kindle Previewer and open up your book with that. You will get a much clearer picture.

Book Production: Start to Finish, How It’s Done

blog2I spend a lot of time explaining to people what is happening with their ebooks and print on demand books–mostly why their Word docs don’t make much difference to me. So instead of repeating myself, I’ll just write this post and send them a link.

Caveat: This is how I do things, the workflow I’ve developed. Not every book producer or formatter does things the same way–or for the same reasons.


What I need from authors are their source file (Word doc or whatever word processor they use–doesn’t matter, I can handle just about anything*), their full-sized cover image (jpeg), and any images they want inserted. It’s better to NOT embed the images in the source document. Rather, send them as attachments, or if there are a lot then stick them in a zip folder and attach that. You can indicate image placement with a comment: [INSERT IMAGE dogandcat.jpg CAPTION Best friends for life.] It’s also best to send the complete document, including all front matter and back matter, in one file. That way nothing gets lost or misplaced (and I don’t get confused). Don’t bother inserting hyperlinks either. When you do that, I have to take the time to recover them. Best just to provide the url and place it next to the text you want linked. Example [LINK Crappy websites.]

* No pdf files unless you are paying me to recover the text. And that can be very expensive.

Should I “format” my Word doc?
Don’t bother. You’ll see why it’s a waste of time a little further down the post. What you should concentrate on is your text, making sure it is properly copy edited, proofed and as clean as you can make it. If you have specific design requirements, write me a note. [JAYE, I WANT THE CHAPTER HEADS IN SANS SERIF WITH A GRAY LINE UNDER IT] Best to just stick to a basic manuscript format.


I create a folder for the project, save the original document, then make a copy of it. I start a text file called “Notes”. I go through the copy, tagging chapter/section starts, section/scene breaks, and making notes of any special styling the book requires (quotes, poems, songs, lists, text messages, emails, letters, etc.). Here I record in my notes the front and back matter, number of chapters, sections, and anything else I need to know. Once the styling is tagged, I tag the special formatting such as italics and bolding. If the front and back matter were sent separately, I compile them into the main document.


Copy/paste the entire document into a text editor. Here’s where I do serious clean up. All tabs, extra spaces, and illegal characters have to be dealt with. Because I like my files tidy, I straighten up the italics and bolding, too. And because I am also a writer/editor, I go through and make sure any manuscript punctuation is turned into proper printer punctuation. Now the file is clean and ready to format.


I create a folder which contains all the sub folders I need along with base files for the opf (manifest) and toc.ncx (internal table of content and guide). Depending on what type of device the client uses, I will do either an EPUB version or a MOBI version first. Then I tackle the images. I size and insert the cover image, and any other image files the client provided. If the client wants custom graphics, I make those. Once the folder is set up and the images are in place, time to style the text.


I use css (cascading style sheets) and html to style the ebook in the text editor. By this point, I have a good idea about the tone of the book so I use that to come up with a “look” that fits the story and complements the cover. Once the book is styled, I split the book into smaller html files–one per chapter or section. Then I complete the opf file, making sure everything is in there, and finish the toc.ncx. The ebook is now ready to compile and convert. Once it’s converted into an EPUB file, I open it in an epub editor. I run quality checks to make sure everything is where it is supposed to be and I haven’t made any bonehead goofs. Any changes I make in the editor, I also make in the html files. Then I validate the file and if it’s for a MOBI/Kindle version, I convert it. Now it’s ready for proofreading.


If I am doing the proofreading, I load the ebook on my Kindle and go through it word by word. If I find a goof, I fix it in the original html file. If the client is doing their own proofreading, I encourage them to load the ebook on their device (or use a program such as the Kindle Previewer or Calibre) to see their book “live”. They can use a copy of their original document for mark up. All they have to do is highlight all changes. They can also leave me notes (highlight those, too!) if they want changes in the styling. The client sends the doc to me and I make the corrections/changes in the html files.


I send a copy of the final version to the client for a quality check. If everything is a go, I build the additional versions the client needs. I don’t hold with the notion of one-size-fits-all for ebooks, so I make separate EPUB and MOBI ebooks. Depending on the client’s distribution plan, I might make several retailer-specific versions (different hyperlinks, different promotional material, etc.). The ebook is done.


If the client needs a Word doc formatted for Smashwords and/or a print on demand book, I compile the clean/ proofread text into a new text file and remove all the html codes. Then I copy/paste that into a Word doc. If for Smashwords, I use a simple template. If for print on demand, it’s just a generic file that I will place into an InDesign document.

Notice what happened with that original Word (word processor) doc? Once it’s tagged, I have no more use for it. I might glance at it for reference if the styling is complicated and the client has specific needs, but except for its text, it has no role in the actual ebook build.


On the left is the Word doc that I have tagged; on the right is the html version. Same text, but notice how it doesn’t resemble the Word doc at all. :)

blog3Here is the same text looking like an ebook. Notice the lack of resemblance to either the original Word doc or the html file.

I know some of you have questions. I’ll try to answer.

What about the font?
If your ebook requires a special font, I’ll embed it. If not, I won’t declare a font at all and leave it up the ereading device and user to decide which font they want for their reading pleasure. You can make life easier for yourself by not worrying about fonts in your Word doc. Compose with whatever makes you happy. If you are using special characters such as letters with acute or grave marks, or foreign characters (Greek letters, for instance) I recommend sticking with Times New Roman. Its character subsets render properly (mostly) in ebooks. Other fonts and subsets can have serious translation problems.

What about margins and justification and and and…?
None of it matters. Think of your Word doc as a component and the only thing that matters is the text. Your ebook is not going to look like your Word doc. You don’t want it to look like your Word doc. Whatever formatting you do is going to be lost when I copy/paste the text into the text editor. As I said before, if you want something special, just write a note in the document and highlight it. I’ll find it.

Can I make changes myself in the finished ebook?
If you’re familiar with using an epub editor, sure. You can’t do anything with the MOBI version, but I can provide the pre-conversion epub file that you can tinker with and then convert. If you’re not handy with an epub editor, then contact me and I’ll make the changes for you. (I rarely charge for minor changes or cover updates.)

For the Do-it-yourselfers who are reading this, pay heed to the ongoing theme in this post. Clean text, clean text, clean text. Clean text (both in the writing and formatting) is what makes or breaks an ebook. Make sure it’s in tip-top shape going in, then proofread the actual ebook to catch any remaining goofs or formatting hiccups. (For those of you who are uploading Word docs to Amazon, you can proofread your Kindle ebook before you upload it for distribution. Download Mobipocket Creator then use it to convert your Word doc into a prc file. Then, convert that into a mobi file with the Kindle Previewer. You can either proof the book (both text and formatting) in the Previewer or load the mobi file onto your Kindle and proof it there.)

I’m sure I missed some questions. Feel free to ask away.

Do You Need Professional Help to Self-Publish?

A few weeks ago I got this email:

Hi Jaye, [a regular client] said you can help me. I got the rights back to my novel [title] published by [Big 5 house]. I had it scanned and converted it to Word. This was back in October and I’ve been working on it off and on, but it’s getting worse instead of better. I’m ready to just forget the whole thing. Is there anyway you can help…

quinngiveupOf course I could help. It’s what I do. He sent the scan, and 48 hours later I sent him back a Word doc in manuscript format with the text restored well enough for him to proofread. It cost him less than $90.

I’m not telling you this to boast about my mad skills. Restoring text from a scan is just something I happen to be very good at–and I’m fast. The reason I’m good at it is because I’ve restored millions of words and I have applied myself to learning how to do it quickly and efficiently. I’m a pro.

I also happen to be good at making ebooks. I’ve done hundreds. I’ve worked and worked to learn how to do it well and how to do it efficiently. I’m pretty good at laying out print-on-demand books, too. I’m even doing covers.

Book production has become second-nature to me. It’s what I do, day in and day out. Most of what I do is very easy for me. I still run into challenges–hell, I look for challenges–but overall I know what I’m doing and I know how to get the job done with minimal fuss and muss.

Writers, on the other hand, write. Formatting an ebook or making a cover or laying out a print-on-demand version look pretty straightforward on the surface. Why not DIY? It sure saves a lot of money. Right? Right?


Sometimes getting professional results will be beyond you. Not because you’re too dumb to figure it out, but because you don’t know what you’re doing and you don’t have the hours and hours and hours to figure it out. You’d rather be writing. Sometimes your time is more valuable than money. So let’s answer the question:

Should You Hire a Professional?

  • Do you have an ereader? (a Nook, a Kindle, an Android tablet, an iPad, etc.) Do you read ebooks? If the answer is no to either, I suggest hiring a professional. Unless you have a good idea how ebooks work, you will not be able to create a professional product.
  • Is your project complicated? Most formatting pros won’t tell you this, but I will: Conversion programs have gotten much, much, much better at turning word processing program files into ebooks. If your project is simple, which most fiction is, you can create a professional ebook using Word (and other word processors). You do need to take care and pay attention to details. It helps if you have a good guide to walk you through it. I recommend Mark Coker’s Smashwords Style Guide. If you want to go a little more sophisticated, try Guido Henkel’s Zen of eBook Formatting. You can do it yourself. On the other hand, if your book contains complicated formatting (lists, tables, boxes, nested styles, etc.) hire a pro. Complicated formatting is not for the dabbler.
  • Do you have the time? I get a lot of emails from writers who can’t make their DIY ebooks work properly. Quite often the problem is a simple one. A line of code. Or a messed up ToC or a distorted cover. Sometimes the problem is more severe and my recommendation is for the writer to go back to step one and completely strip, then restyle their book. What I hear back is a variation on: “But I’ve been trying to do this for weeks! And you say I have to start over?” Think about it. How much money are you saving if it’s taking you a month or six weeks to do what a pro can do in a day? Book production requires time spent NOT writing and NOT marketing and NOT promoting. Publishing is a business and knowing when to delegate responsibilities and hire sub-contractors is part of doing business.
  • Do you know what you don’t know? Ebooks are getting better, production-wise. It’s rare these days for me to buy one that’s a total mess (even from the trad publishers). Except for one thing: Either margins and line-spacing that cannot be adjusted for my reading comfort. I know what causes it. The formatter used either Word or InDesign and locked the styles either by justifying the text or messing around with page margins. (This irritation is so common in trad pubbed ebooks that I have to really, really, really want the story and it has to be really, really cheap before I will click to buy.) It boggles my brain that the formatter does not know the ebook is broken. It tells me they do not know enough to load the book on a device and run it through its paces. Ebooks are fairly simple, but there is stuff going on beneath the surface that every formatter (DIY or pro) should know. Do you know the difference between MOBI and EPUB? Do you know the difference between manuscript punctuation and printer punctuation? Do you know how to work with styles? Do you know about bloat? How to validate an EPUB file? If you don’t have the time or inclination to learn these things, hire a pro. [If reading my little list gives you an ‘oh shit’ moment, you might want to hire a pro.]
  • Are you willing to do the work at a professional level? If you want to sell your ebook or trade paperback, then your customers deserve a professional product. DIY self-publishers can produce professional products. The question you have to ask yourself is, can you? Book production is work and it can be frustrating and there’s a ton of conflicting information on the internet when you go looking for answers to sticky problems. If you prefer to put your energy and time elsewhere, there is no shame in that. There is shame, though, in putting a price tag on a sub-par product.

So Where Do You Find a Pro?

I’m not going to recommend anyone (not even myself) because it’s your book and your budget and your schedule. There’s a healthy industry of book production specialists springing up on the internet. Do a Google search for ebook formatting services. Do avoid anything connected to Author Solutions and other vanity publishers. Stay away from “automated” services, too. The only thing they do is convert your Word file–Garbage In-Garbage Out. Kindle Boards is a good place to look, too. Ask other writers. People who are happy with their service providers are usually more than happy to recommend them.

For this post only, if you are a book production specialist, leave a comment with your contact info. I will check you out and if you’re legit, I’ll post your info.


Fun With Formatting: Emails and Text Messages in Ebooks

“An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. Recently, electronic “documents” such as recordings and radio, blogs, and e-mails have also come into use. The word epistolary is derived from Latin from the Greek word ἐπιστολή epistolē, meaning a letter” (from Wikipedia)

All well and good, but what do those look like in an ebook? Notes and letters have a fairly standard format: offset margins, extra space before and after, sometimes italicized. Visually, it is easy to clue the reader in that they are looking at a note or letter. But what about an email? Or a text message?

I recently completed a book where the writer used emails and text messages. One chapter consisted entirely of emails and another chapter was a text message conversation. This particular author writes funny, quirky, sexy, offbeat romances. She likes her ebooks to be pretty and to stand out from the crowd–she wants them to look fun. (Which is tons of fun for me.) She wanted the emails to look like emails and the text messages to look like text messages.

textemail1For text messages inside the body of the ebook I used a sans serif font, bolded, and offset.

Would readers be confused if the text message looked the same as everything else? I doubt it. I know, from my own reading (and I read a LOT!) that visually interesting ebooks stand out. I am delighted by small touches–ornaments, unusual formatting, pictures–that break up the solid chunks of text.

For the chapter that consisted entirely of text messages, I pulled out the stops, using color blocks and right and left text alignment:

textemail2This is a tad over the top, but it fits with the playful tone of this story. For a story with a more serious tone, I would probably not use color blocks. I could use deep right/left margins to make the text messages appear to be in centered blocks. I might give them a border, too, to keep them from running into one another. Or, left align the text and have extra space between the messages. The key would be, as in all things ebooks, consistency. Pick a look, stick with it, and readers will happily follow along.

On to emails. I’ve formatted emails before, but this was the first time that I had a long string of them. The headers had to be included (because they are an important part of the story). I considered (briefly) placing each on its own “page.” But no, that would have killed the sense of rapid back and forth. This is what I came up with:

textemail3I set off each header with two lines (horizontal rules) and sans serif font with the sender bolded. For the body of the email I used regular serif font and a block paragraph style. To my eyes there is no mistaking these as anything other than emails. It’s a style that would work for any story that has emails, whether in a string or as a stand-alone.

So there you go, one way to handle text messages and emails. What about the rest of you? Have you found a fun/interesting way to make emails and text messages stand out in your ebook? Inquiring minds want to know.

Samples are from Penny Watson’s Sweet Adventure. Sweet-Adventure-ebook-cover-blue2

Fun with Formatting: Playing with Fonts and Images

First, I’m not a fan of embedding fonts in ebooks. It’s simple to do, but it’s a minefield. Not every device will support embedded fonts, some fonts have very restrictive conditions of use, others can cost big bucks for a license, and some are not complete (as in, you can get the regular font, but not italics or many of the special characters such as em dashes or acute or grave marks). Making everything behave, and doing so in legal compliance, is far more hassle than it’s worth. My opinion. And for those of you using Word to format your Kindle files, do not let Word lull you into thinking all is well because your formatted Word file looks good with your fancy fonts. It can turn into a royal mess–and let’s not get into how much bloat the file will contain!–and you can even break the ebook so the user cannot change fonts or margins. Your file will convert just fine if you stick to Times New Roman or Garamond. The conversion programs recognize those.

That said, it’s okay to mix things up a bit by taking advantage of the capabilities already built in to the ereading devices. (I’m going to focus on Kindles because I own Kindles, but most of this applies also to EPUB devices.)  Kindles offer a menu of font families in the user preferences. The Fire tablet offers four serif fonts (Caecilia, Georgia, Palatino, and Baskerville) and a sans serif font (Helvetica). Paperwhites have six fonts (serif, Caecilia, Caecilia Condensed, Baskerville, and Palatino; and sans serif, Futura and Helvetica). Even the older models offer readers a choice between serif and sans serif. You can mix them up.

White6In css styling, it’s easy as can be. Insert this line in your style declaration:

font-family: “Helvetica: , “Futura” , “sans serif” ;

What happens is this, the device will use Helvetica, if it has it, or Futura, if it has it, but if not, it will use whatever sans serif font it has available. This is a nice touch for chapter titles and, as in the example above, a sign, or a headline, or to set off such things as text messages or computer readouts. You can customize the look further by using all caps, small caps, increasing or decreasing the font size, bold and italics. Best of all, it will not bloat the file, cause legal problems or interfere with the user controls.

*          *          *

Let’s move on to images–a subject that reduces many formatters to gibbering cuss-buckets. I’ll leave such things as sizing, text wrapping, fixing images, etc. for another day. Let’s talk about the dreaded WHITE BOX. You know what I mean. You have a nice little glyph or scene break separator that adds a touch of oomph to your ebook and it looks beautiful on the Kindle screen.


And then a user decides to read with a sepia background or in Night mode. And even though your image has a transparent background, this happens.


I know of some users who prefer to use Night mode on their tablets. I, myself, will use Sepia when I’m reading long form at night when my eyes are tired. I barely notice the white boxes anymore, and I’m sure users of Night mode are pretty much the same way. It’s a quirk to get used to. As a formatter it drives me nuts. Especially since I own an ebook that has defeated the White Box problem, so I knew it could be done. I finally figured it out.

White4White5Kindles will render three types of image files: jpeg, gif and png. Each has their strengths and each has their weaknesses: namely image crispness and file size. The trick to defeating the white box is the gif image. In, the program I use for making simple graphics, when I save a gif image there is an option to adjust the transparency. I set it at 255. What that does is, everything with a resolution less than “normal”, i.e. 255, is transparent. (I should be able to do this with png images, but I haven’t been able to. So, dear readers, if any of you have figured it out, let us know.)

You do need to be careful with gif images. If they are too big they will get a distorted, fuzzy look. Not every color renders well. You should use a simple palette. Don’t use percentages so they adjust to the screen size–that can go bad quickly. Instead declare the width. Solid black images can disappear in Night mode, but if you give your image a narrow stroke of 1-3 pixels in white or pale yellow, that will take care of that.

So there you go, two more ways to improve the look of your ebooks and make them stand out.

Examples are from:

BOURBONS & BLONDES, by Anthony Venutolo